There are lots of reasons to bring the garden inside:
1. It's too cold outside
2. It's too wet outside
3. You don't have a yard
4. Location (you don't even have to leave the house)
5. Plants clean the air
6. Less pests and diseases
My favorite choices for winter indoor growing are leafy greens (kale, chard, lettuce and spinach) as well as herbs. During the summer months you can include bush beans, cherry tomatoes and eggplant.
So where do you start? First, pick a location. Your garden can be as small (windowsill) or large (sun room) as you'd like. For large gardens you might want to consider using a bench or table. Be sure to put a piece of plastic on the floor to protect your carpet.
Plants need light to photosynthesize, and they need to photosynthesize to survive. Make sure that the area you choose gets plenty of sunlight. Selecting a south or east facing window is best. If your location doesn't get enough sunlight, you'll need to supplement your garden with grow lights. Many units can be purchased online, or if you're the handy type you can rig up a shelving unit with grow lights.
Your plants will do best with an average temperature of 65-75 degrees. A variation of 10 degrees either way won't be a deal breaker. If your room is too hot, leaves will be small and weak. If your room is too cold, leaves will drop.
Many homes can be dry during the winter months. Your plants will benefit with some humidity. Consider misting your plants, setting a saucer of water near (but not underneath) your plants, or running a humidifier.
Soil is very important. Don't use garden soil. It can be too heavy and may contain weed seeds, pests and pathogens. You want soil with good drainage. My favorite is "Fox Farms-Ocean Forest" but that's just my personal choice. Choose your favorite container mixture.
You can start your garden using seeds, seedlings, cuttings or, try growing plants from vegetable scraps.
So, your asking, what plants grow best indoors? Here's a partial list:
Vegetables: Salad greens, kale, chard, peppers, tomatoes (especially cherry), beans (bush), eggplant, carrots and onions.
Herbs: Basil, parsley, oregano, cilantro, catmint, lavender, chives, and rosemary.
Flowers: Alyssum, geranium, pansy, orchid, roses, begonias, and marigolds.
Fruits: Strawberries and blueberries
Trees: dwarf apple and citrus.
Need some tips for indoor growing?
Choose plants appropriate for the location you are growing in.
Choose plants appropriate for the season you are growing in.
Remember that all plants need sunlight (a minimum of 5-6 hours) but more is usually better.
Choose containers with good drainage.
Space the plants well, Don't overcrowd.
Grow plants with similar needs (water, sunlight) together.
Water the plants regularly. The soil should be moist but not soggy.
Drain the saucers from standing water.
Fertilize every 2-3 weeks with a diluted liquid or granular fertilizer.
Wait, didn't you say I can regrow plants from kitchen scraps? Who knew. What plants are best regrown from scraps:
Vegetables: Green onions, scallions, leeks, celery, potatoes, sweet potatoes, lettuce, cabbage, turnips, and bok choi.
Herbs: Ginger, lemon grass, fennel, basil, cilantro, oregano, rosemary, sage and thyme.
Also consider: Avocado, mushrooms and pineapple.
Not all of these will do well in your indoor garden, but it's always nice to get plants for free.
Be well and happy Winter gardening!